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The Electoral-Professional Party System as the Ideal Option for the Newly Formed Country

0 May 03 2018, 14:44 in Political Science Essays

The purpose of the paper is to explore the viable political party framework in the establishment of a new country and examine the necessary procedures to support the party system. Arguably, a newly formed democratic government can take advantage of an electoral-professional party due to its flexibility, pragmatism, and use of experts to advance the interests of voters while processes related to institutionalization, delineation of political and social cleavages, and creation of an electoral organization enables the state to protect the interests of the citizenry and promote party competition.

Choosing the Party System

The ideal party system for the new state is the electoral-professional party. The approach features capturing the diverse interests that voters hold and enabling the organization to utilize experts to adjust to issues according to the needs of its members (Petttitt 54). Allowing the type to permeate to the new state recognizes the overlapping interests that shape decision making and support the environment where stakeholders adjust to ideological changes that can occur in the country. Notably, embracing an electoral-professional party offers the following advantages to the newly formed state:

One of the evident applying an electoral-professional party is flexibility. It pertains to the organization having the chance to adapt changing issues surrounding society. Incorporating the approach encourages the party to tackle issues according to the changes of beliefs and ideals of its members. The approach is relevant especially on matters where the party has to pursue ideological changes and moderating the way members responded to critical issues happening (Pettitt 55). More importantly, parties using the electoral-professional framework can now focus on organizational issues that directly impact voters.

Another notable significance of using ‘experts’ to address the needs of the party. Through the use of experts, the party gains professionals who are knowledgeable about the issue and can help explain conditions and responses to voters. Having professionals handle the dissemination of information can help prevent specific linkages to leaders which can sometimes create conflicting ideals and values in the pursuit of policy. Pettitt contends "in the electoral-professional party the vertical link is weakened and the party appeals to the ‘opinion electorate’ rather than the ‘electorate of belonging’ (54).

Equally significant is that an electoral-professional party addresses old cleavages and contemporary issues affecting voters. With ‘experts’ in place, it is easier for the organization to offer relevant responses and shift ideals according to the practical realities that the situation dictates. For example, a professionalized party can approach the unemployment problem by catering to different issues that voters hold dear such as household income, inflation, and job security. These points in turn shall become the primary agenda of the organization in seeking support by offering qualified experts. At the same time, it also helps control the heavy influence of the political elites in the advancement of party interests as party allegiances is not based on ideology but rather related interests (Lipset 54).

The electoral-professional party system also advances pragmatism in its pursuit of responses and policy development. Since the party is not focused on the promotion of ideology but rather on organizational interests, it allows voters to easily align their views without offering any form of allegiances or support to specific ideology. The party can also progress in promoting its interests as long as there are various groups that continue to align with itsobjectives.

Finally, the system complements the new state as new and existing parties lack institutionalization. It means that party development and institutionalization remain critical in ensuring that the party appeals to diverse interests. Moreover, the process of establishing power involves experts disseminating information to appeal to the needs of voters (Lipset 53). Allowing parties to professionalize also help in creating standards and metrics that can align to the government’s effort to enact policies that will benefit the voters of the new state.

Generating the Party System

In seeking to generate an electoral-professional party system in the country, it is vital to progress the institutionalization of the party, delineate political cleavages that govern each organization, and establishment of electoral institutions to progress mandates surrounding competitiveness, party composition, and information dissemination. These features allow the new country to advance the goals of political parties, promote interest-based representations, and align with the real issues that require legislation.

In institutionalizing parties, the government should first require the delineation of each party’s political and social cleavages. Cleavages pertain to the existing difference that a party has over issues which define the identity of its members (Bertoa 17). Examples of these include ethnicity, language, religion, household income, etc. While an electoral-professional party tries to focus mainly on shifting interests to appeal to stakeholders, the use of cleavages are vital in helping establish foundation to help sustain core values in place. Well-founded social cleavages also help the party progress a catch-all type strategy through the use of ‘experts’ to address voters’ demands for information.

Institutionalization of the political party also helps the government reduce the number of parties that aim to support the interests of its target voters. As groups consolidate on commonly held cleavages, they achieve commonalities or differences that help establish their unique values and ideals. These interactions, in turn, will lead to reduction of parties the new country can implement through election. Neto and Cox contend that "there are three broad stages to consider in this process of reduction: the translation of social cleavages into partisan preferences; the translation of partisan preferences into votes; and the translation of votes into seats” (152). These features enable parties to gain legitimization and adhere to the norms and standards prescribed by the electoral institution of the newly formed government.

Equally important is the creation of electoral institutions that oversee and ensure the promotion of party competition. Having an external body to address political party activity provides benefits to the new government in ensuring that the interests of voters are well-represented. As a governing body for political parties, part of the goals of the organization is to ensure that opposition is present. Lipset contends "conflict between the governing and opposition parties helps establish democratic norms and rules” (48). Also, having an electoral institution helps establish the necessary rules, standards, and requirements for party formation and the corresponding mandates to achieve legitimacy and institutionalization.

Moreover, the electoral institutions also holds power to ensure that parties adhere to the nature of presenting information through the use of ‘experts’ information. Establishing standards on categorizing experts on social cleavages are vital to ensure that the dissemination of data remains relevant to the needs of the state and goes beyond the practice of politicization by elected representatives of the party. In essence, these electoral institutions identify the mandates that help professionalize parties and offer appropriate responses to the demands of voters.


Overall, the ability to shift individual demands and progress information through ‘expert’ opinion are reasons that make electoral-professional party the ideal model for a newly created state. Moreover, the state can further reap its benefits by advancing institutionalization and creating electoral institutions that ensures adherence to competition, norms, and professional standards of how a political party should operate to cater the needs of the voting public.

Works Cited

Bertoa, Fernando Casal. "Party systems and cleavage structures revisited: a sociological

explanation of party system institutionalization in East Central Europe. Party Politics, 20.1(2014): 16-36.

Lipset, Seymour Martin. "The Indispensability of Political Parties,” Journal of Democracy,

11.1(2000): 48-55.

Neto, Octavio Amorim and Cox, Gary W. "Electoral Institutions, Cleavage Structures, and the

Number of Parties” American Journal of Political Science, 41.1(1997): 149-174.

Pettitt, Robin. Contemporary Party Politics.New York: Palgrave MacMillan. 2014. Print.

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