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Bilingual Education, Oil, and the Hualapai: New Challenges and Opportunities in Arizona

0 March 13 2018, 16:15 in Business Essays

Bilingual Education, Oil, and the Hualapai: New Challenges and Opportunities in Arizona

Initial Thoughts

The demands of oil reserves in Arizona suspected to rise for years. Considering the use of fossil fuel, the local government should obtain oil reserves at the best diplomatic means possible. Douglas Ducey, the governor of Arizona, should communicate with any representatives and experts who could help him realize his plans for the development of the economy of Arizona and for the progress of people in the region. When the local government realized that Hualapai lands in the Reservation area for the Hualapai tribe had large deposits of oil, the government officials took to turn their attention to taking advantage of the oil reserves in the regions. However, such plan of using oil reserves received political rejection as the Hualapai people begged to disagree on the idea without asking their demands. Since the United State government gave the Hualapai lands to them, they insisted on defending their constitutional and legal rights to claim their properties free from force and power. Although the local government of Arizona had the power to take these oil resources by force, Governor Douglas Ducey and his team should meet with the demands of the Hualapai people to revive Bilingual Education to gain access of the large deposits of oil reserves in the region.

Peach Springs Reservation

Hualapai lands in Peach Springs accommodate its people for decades and even centuries. In fact, some Hualapai people have found themselves homes from the different regions in the United States, while others have stayed in Peach Springs Reservation as their primary homes. They have lived on the Reservation where the United States government give these locations to live their lives. For many years, both the local government and Hualapai have discovered that the Reservation has kept oil reserves. The Arizona government, of course, had some interests in oil reserves as these energy resources would help meet their demands of energy. When the Arizona government talked to the Hualapai people so that they could enter into the areas to dig more oil resources, the Hualapai people and their leaders in the Reservation imposed their stimulating demands by abolishing the Proposition 203 and reviving Bilingual Education as a tool for the Hualapai tribe to maintain the final link to their disappearing cultural and language heritage. Although the Arizona government had the capacity to obtain those oil resources in northwestern Arizona by using forces and powers, the Arizona governor Douglas Ducey and the team should take the diplomatic actions and considerations to acquire those oil reserves in the Reservation.

Bilingual Education against Oil Reserves

The oil reserves in Arizona, which are believed to be abundant in the region, could pose legal and political problems between the local government and the Hualapai tribe. The Hualapai people who have lived in western Arizona for centuries have had a strong demand for Bilingual Education before they could confirm their approval to let the local government spearheaded by Governor Douglas Ducey have access on the oil reserves. Such demand further required the government officials to revise course curriculums or to abolish the Proposition 203 that would restrict the Hualapai tribe to maintain their own sociocultural language and heritage. The Hualapai people only needed to have Bilingual Education to revive the remaining link of their cultural heritage and the connection that would also define their existence. For the Hualapai people, the government should allow them to have Bilingual Education by amending the Proposition 203 to maintain to learn their own language as their cultural link of their past and speak it in their business and day-to-day conversation. Such demand did not create a problem if the Arizona government had to review the previous studies and rulings that Bilingual Education has been effective in the educational settings.

Certainly, the demands of Hualapai people to revive the Bilingual Education posed some issues. Firstly, it would require the local government to consider the budgetary plans of the program if they needed to revise the course curriculums, the books, and other reading materials, some of the academic forms and scholarly journals, the employment of additional Hualapai teachers and assistants, and other buildings to support further training and learning materials for the Bilingual students. Furthermore, the Arizona government should promote Hualapai language in the classrooms, in the community gatherings, and on some occasions in the classroom setting for socialization and cultural survival. However, such conditions were difficult since other Native American Tribes would consider submitting and imposing to have the same demands. In this case, the government of Arizona did not have options to take but to provide the demands of the tribes and offer effective solutions to the impending problems.

Proposition 203 Political Status

The establishment of Proposition 203 was claimed to be a political display. Critics asked how the Proposition 203 made a great impact on the progress of people especially the Hualapai tribe. In one report, Wright managed "to underscore the party-political display of the Proposition 203 that abolished bilingual education in Arizona” (662). In this proposition, the educational experts and proponents exhibited the Proposition 203 "as an Educational Policy and mandated the English-only education system” (Wright 662; Rolstad, Mahoney, and Glass 46). In fact, the report pointed some problems that the Proposition 203 became a political spectacle. Wright discoursed his knowledge about the proposition and "managed to explore some initiatives of the government to interpret and implement the proposition” (663). He took some pieces of evidence that Proposition 203 only fashioned a political display that did not concern about the students of English Language Learning. Wright reported such political spectacle found in its policy campaign and its enactment.

The local government of Arizona should necessarily adopt new policies to respond to the demands of the Hualapai people. Rolstad, Mahoney, and Glass made a clearer review of the recent language policy in the state of Arizona. These authors also highlighted the educational program options for the learners of English language and fashioned a widespread study on the efficacy of bilingual education. Furthermore, they conducted the effectiveness of the bilingual education programbased on the findings of the study. As a result, these authors substantiated that bilingual education exhibited positive outcomes. The current language policy, which prohibited students to speak bilanguage languages, did not even help the learners to study and progress in life. It seemed hard to explain why the government officials and the academic experts instituted the Proposition 203 despite the favorable and constructive results of bilingual education. As concluded, the current language state policy should consider any empirical evidence to recommend bilingual education and reject Proposition 203 in the local community.

Final Thoughts

In the end, the Arizona government could have access to oil reserves in Hualapai lands through serious dialogs. Firstly, the local government should revive the Bilingual Education and institute it in all Native American Tribes. Such move to recuperate Bilingual Education would surely cost the local government; nonetheless, Douglas Ducey might need it to implement the demands of the Hualapai people considering the demand of oil reserves in the region. Since the United States government bestowed the Hualapai lands to them, the local government of Arizona does not have the legal status to own and use the property without permission. Of course, the government should not use its powers and forces to harass its people. Bearing the legal rights and privileges of the Native American Indians, the local government of Arizona should think of the best strategy and plan to offer if it would not revive the Bilingual Education (August, Shanahan, and Escamilla 18). Therefore, the local government of Arizona should comply with the demands of the Hualapai people or should provide an alternative that would satisfy the demands of Hualapai people.

Douglas Ducey and His Response Policies

Before Governor Douglas Ducey would respond to the demands of the Hualapai people, he and his team should consider drafting important policies to negotiate with the Hualapai representatives:

a) Restating the Bilingual Language Policy

Governor Douglas Ducey could agree with the Bilingual Education by abolishing the Proposition 203. However, he could promise to implement Bilingual Education to the Hualapai and other tribes if he did not have options to take. If the regions did possessa large number of deposits of oil that would sustain the local government to have enough energy resources, then Governor Douglas Ducey had to realize the need to terminate the Proposition 203 as the only demands staged by the Hualapai group of people. Since the curriculums were available since 1975, it would be easy for the elementary and high school curriculums to offer Bilingual Education and to provide six certified Hualapai teachers and White American educators. Since Hualapai students are only a few, the local government could still accommodate them with several classrooms and other learning materials. Of course, such move has been costly due to the demands of books, documents to process the course curriculums, reviews, and technical dissemination of data and other resources, and reading materials, salaries for the Hualapai and other Native American Indian teachers, White American educators, and their teaching assistants. However, Governor Douglas Ducey would only initiate one tribe first to implement the Bilingual Education as an academic policy and promise to recommend other Bilingual Education of all tribes in the regions. Perhaps, Governor Douglas Ducey should dialogue with the Hualapai tribe first, and then he needed to talk to all representatives to other tribes to discuss their needs to adopt the suggested language policies (August, Shanahan, and Escamilla 436). It would be necessary that Governor Douglas Ducey and his team should negotiate first with some of the representatives and conduct a pilot study if adopting Bilingual Education as an academic language policy before they would implement it to all the designated tribe.

b) Promoting Tourism through Building Museums for the Native American Tribes

The local government of Arizona could also endorse tourism and other museum services for the Native American tribes. Governor Douglas Ducey shifted from the Bilingual Education to build a museum for the Hualapai tribe within their community and the city. The construction of the museums in the local community and in the city would serve as a protection of their culture. He should also focus on empowering the Hualapai people by preserving their culture through constructing museums. In other words, the local government should further help the Hualapai people and open their museum to the public for tourism purposes (White 342). Building museums did not demand much money for the construction of museums and for the promotion of their cultural heritage. More likely, the Hualapai tribe should favor the museum program where galleries and exhibition centers would contain all artifacts and relics and visual technologies to show the history of the Hualapai people and their existence in North America. Moreover, the local government should also help the Hualapai communities to have access to the entrepreneurial activities so that they could build their own businesses. If the local government helped the Hualapai people to promote their language artifacts and Hualapai symbols to the local and foreign tourists in the exhibition halls, then these people would still value their culture and tradition while preserving their language from their day-to-day conversations (Anyon, Ferguson, Jackson, and Lane 16). Hence, the local government of Arizona could also recommend cultural and social tourism through the construction of rural and urban museums and services for all the Native American tribes.

c) Health and Livelihood Programs versus Bilingual Education for Hualapai Tribe

Perhaps, the local government of Arizona should introduce a livelihood program for the Hualapai tribe and find a job market for them. The government could adopt new measures to consider a number of sustainable livelihood programs and to prioritize the Hualapai tribe to have permanent jobs would end the problem of the poverty. Firstly, Governor Douglas Ducey should articulate these livelihood programs and other plans to the representatives so that these Hualapai leaders in order to initiate plans. Secondly, he should promote effective livelihood and health plans for the Hualapai people regardless of their socio-economic statuses. Governor Douglas Ducey could persuade the Hualapai people to take advantage of the medicine and livelihood programs for their lifestyles. In this case, there could be a big chance for the Hualapai people to prioritize the livelihood programs and free medical checkup for their tribe. If the problem of the Hualapai people is about the disconnection of their cultural linkage and heritage, the local government officials spearheaded by Governor Douglas Ducey could inform the Hualapai tribe that they have already preserved the cultural trademarks and birthrights of their people and revived them through rural and urban presentations during local and national celebrations. In words, there have been several means and reasons to regain consciousness of the Hualapai people and their cultural associations and legacies not only Bilingual Education. If the local government thrives to convince the Hualapai people, Governor Douglas Ducey would never face any problems negotiating the harvest of the oil reserves in the Hualapai region. Thus, the local government of Arizona would certainly prosper to make the business grow locally and nationally without abandoning the courage to preserve the national traditions and values.

Recommending the Best Approach to Argue

To substantiate the plan, it would be recommended that Governor Douglas Ducey and his team should convince the Hualapai tribe about the following:

a) Hualapai people should subscribe the local government officials who reached agreements on the livelihood programs and free medical checkups on various grants rather than enforcing Bilingual Education. These days when cultural and social aspects of people would drastically change, the Hualapai should need those useful services such as free medical checkup and medicine and livelihood programs provided by the local government. Governor Douglas Ducey should discuss some problems with the Hualapai representatives if the discussion would cover the livelihood programs and the healthcare services concentrating only on the free medical checkup. Indeed, the government should look for clinics and health services to accommodate the Hualapai people and to participate in the health and livelihood programs.

b) At some points, Governor Douglas Ducey should take new options by constructing small museums in the rural and urban communities in order to preserve their cultural heritage and their custom of the Hualapai people. These museums would promote some important galleries for the Hualapai culture and the whole tribes.

c) In the end, Governor Douglas Ducey should amend the Proposition 203 and adopted the Bilingual Education policies. However, such language policy would serve as immersion approach in order to re-administer the necessity and feasibility of the Bilingual program (Johnson 67). In words, the local government should limit its new policy to re-adopt Bilingual Education and called it to "Proposition 203 – R” to inform the Hualapai people that the problem would only be coterminous to the governor and would be subject to any reviews. It would mean that Governor Douglas Ducey should promising bilingual education to the Hualapai and other Native American tribes in Arizona; nonetheless, they should meet some concerns. In words, Arizona would provide all Native Americans regarding the bilingual education (Shepherd 78). However, the implementation of the plan of the program should require step-by-step processes since ratifying the Proposition 203 demanded some efforts, monetary resources, and positive results on Hualapai people.

Final Thoughts

The local government of Arizona should finalize its strategy and decide on the best approach. Governor Douglas Ducey should then concentrate on the requested demands of the Hualapai people as the primary key to further dialogs. However, he should not only limit his perspective about Bilingual Education as a language policy. Instead, he had to introduce healthcare services to the Hualapai people and medical checkup. If the Hualapai people chose the Bilingual Education over the free medical checkup and livelihood programs and the established museums, then they had to deal with it by asking the representatives of all tribes to discuss the enactment of Hualapai Bilingual Education. In words, the local government needed to conduct another pilot implementation of Bilingual Education only for the Hualapai people. Such agreement should meet the demands of the Hualapai and the government for further cooperation. However, if Hualapai people chose the free medical checkup and other health services plus the livelihood programs, they Governor Douglas Ducey would lose his dilemma to fight the case.


Works Cited

Anyon, Roger, T. J. Ferguson, Loretta Jackson, and Lillie Lane. "Native American Oral Traditions and Archaeology.”Society for American Archaeology Bulletin14.2 (1996): 14-16.

August, Diane, Timothy Shanahan, and Kathy Escamilla. "English Language Learners: Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners – Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth.”Journal of Literacy Research41.4 (2009): 432-452.

Johnson, Eric. "Proposition 203: A Critical Metaphor Analysis.”Bilingual Research Journal29.1 (2005): 69-84.

McCarty, Teresa L. "Revitalizing Indigenous Languages in Homogenizing Times.”Comparative Education39.2 (2003): 147-163.

McCarty, Teresa L., Mary Eunice Romero-Little, and Ofelia Zepeda. "Native American Youth Discourses on Language Shift and Retention: Ideological Cross-Currents and Their Implications for Language Planning.”International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism9.5 (2006): 659-677.

Rolstad, Kellie, Kate S. Mahoney, and Gene V. Glass. "Weighing the Evidence: A Meta-analysis of Bilingual Education in Arizona.”Bilingual Research Journal29.1 (2005): 43-67.

Shepherd, Jeffrey P.We are an Indian Nation: A History of the Hualapai People. University of Arizona Press, 2010.

Watahomigie, Lucille J. "The Native Language is a Gift: A Hualapai Language Autobiography.” (1998): 5-8.

Watahomigie, Lucille J., and Teresa L. McCarty. "Bilingual/Bicultural Education at Peach Springs: A Hualapai Way of Schooling.”Peabody Journal of Education69.2 (1994): 26-42.

White, David. "Tourism as Economic Development for Native People Living in the Shadow of a Protected Area: A North American Case Study.”Society & Natural Resources6.4 (1993): 339-345.

Wright, Wayne E. "The Political Spectacle of Arizona’s Proposition 203.” Educational Policy19.5 (2005): 662-700.

Wright, Wayne E., and Chang Pu. "Academic Achievement of English Language Learners in Post Proposition 203 Arizona.”Education Policy Research Unit(2005).


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