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Air Pollution Paper

0 November 19 2017, 10:09 in Informative Essays

Air pollution still remains one of the most important environmental problems that significantly affect the health and well-being of people. Scientifically speaking, this phenomenon usually occurs by the introduction of harmful substances such as particulates and biological molecules into the Earth’s atmosphere; eventually, this causes diseases, allergies, and even death to humans and animals and long-term damage to the environment. Another more scientifically in-depth definition of an air pollutant is that it is any "substance emitted into the air from an anthropogenic, biogenic, or geogenic source” that is either not a part of the natural atmosphere or is present in higher concentrations which may eventually result to either short or long-term adverse effects (Daly and Zannetti, 2007, 3). According to the same source by Daly and Zannetti, one telling description that the air quality in the current time is poor is its difference in terms of chemical composition from before the occurrence of the Industrial Revolution (2007, 1). From the data provided, it can be seen that the current atmosphere is composed of 370.0 ppm carbon dioxide, 1.77 ppm methane, and 0.318 ppm nitrous oxide aside from nitrogen, oxygen, and argon (Daly and Zennetti, 2007, 2). This composition is significantly far from that in the pre-industrial era which is reported to be composed of 280 ppm carbon dioxide, 0.750 ppm methane, and 0.270 ppm nitrous oxide aside from other gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, and argon (Daly and Zennetti, 2007, 2).

Currently, the American Lung Association and the list California as the most polluted state in the USA. Moreover, the American Lung Association lists in its 2016 State of the Air report that Los Angeles is still the metropolitan area "with the worst ozone pollution” (American Lung Association, 2016, 5). This is also what is mentioned from the same report in the year 2017 also citing regions Los Angeles- Long Beach, Bakersfield, and Fresno-Madera as the top regions with the worst smog levels (California State University Chancellor’s Office, 2017). Finally, another news article on the Daily News mentions that the levels of ozone have reached to unhealthful levels in the Southern California; this is manifested in the presence of smog in the city (Danelski, 2017).

In this paper, the main focus would be on the phenomenon of air pollution in the USA specifically in the Californian state. Moreover, the different factors which contribute to the occurrence of this phenomenon as well as the varying effects to both the health of humans and animals and to the state of the environment will also be discussed. Finally, a number of possible solutions and policy recommendations that can be performed would also be enumerated in the

later part of this paper.


Air Quality in Los Angeles, California

The poor air quality that is prevalent in the Los Angeles area can be largely attributed to the high levels of ozone in the atmosphere. The prevalence of this phenomenon is also further encouraged by the increasing industrial activity and population growth in the mentioned city. One journal article by Littman and Magill aims to determine and discuss the several "unique aspects” of air pollution in Los Angeles; one of the most important considerations that have been mentioned is of the meteorological aspect. According to the source, the meteorological aspect of Los Angeles greatly contributes to the mechanism of smog in the state. To start with, the unique topographical conditions of Los Angeles must be considered; the city is edged in by mountains which somehow serve as "barricades” which limit the "lateral movement of the prevailing sea breeze and funnel it through a few passes” (Littman and Magill, 1953, 29). This phenomenon results to the movement of air in such a way that it is merely shuffled back and forth thereby reducing its efficacy in "purging” contaminated air (Littman and Magill, 1953, 29). Another important consideration is the presence of a warm air layer which is also known as the Pacific inversion; this air layer covers most of California’s coastal areas which forms an "effective lid” over the Los Angeles Basin that prevents the vertical escape of polluted air (Littman and Magill, 1953, 29). These two important topographical aspects of Los Angeles significantly contribute to the rather poor air quality of the state. To have a better understanding on their effects, the usual conditions wherein smog is observed in the city must also be considered.

A typical smoggy day in the state starts out as a "clear, sunny, and warm morning” which eventually turns to a hazy one between 8 and 10 A.M.; this haze becomes more condensed and "more irritating” between 11 A.M. and 2 P.M. (Littman and Magill, 1953, 29). The sea afternoon

breeze usually dissipates the smog to the other parts of the state and late afternoons are usually characterized as clear once again. However, there are times that a portion of the smog will remain and will contribute to the pollution the following day. Another important factor that must be considered is that the smog that usually prevails in Los Angeles occurs under low relative humidity (<60%); the visible part is also usually composed largely of "aqueous droplets and only to a minor extent of solid particulate matter” (Littman and Magill, 1953, 29).

From these information, it can be said that the smog formation in the city is merely attributed to the large concentration of ozone, and the movement of sea breeze. Several data shown in Littman and Magill’s source demonstrate the rather high concentrations of ozone in places where smog formation is also high. On the other hand, the function of sea breeze is to dissipate a certain amount of smog cloud by stirring it up and diluting it and has nothing to do with transportation (Littman and Magill, 1953, 30). This dissipation results to the "lifting of veils of smog” at different parts of the state. The dissipation of smog by the sea breeze also explains the phenomenon in which the occurrence of smog is simultaneously observed throughout the Los Angeles Basin; the observed smog in residential areas in Pasadena has nothing to do with the "bad neighbors” at Los Angeles and at the same time, that observed in Los Angeles cannot be attributed to the industrial areas in the southern parts of the city (Littman and Magill, 1953, 30).

The smog that is observed in the Californian state is composed mainly of contaminants of the particulate and gaseous kinds. It has been observed that the particular contaminants found in smog consist of a significant amount of "high-boiling organic constituents” such as alcohol, aldehydes, carboxyl groups, and peroxide linkages that have been similarly observed in fuel effluents in automobile exhaust (Littman and Magill, 1953, 31). On the other hand, gaseous contaminants that have been determined to be present in Los Angeles smog include organics

such as aldehydes and hydrocarbons. Among the hydrocarbons that have been identified include acetylene, butane, pentane, benzene, and toluene with a total concentration of 0.2 to 1.1 ppm (Littman and Magill, 1953, 32). Another gas contaminant that has been interestingly observed to be present in smog is ozone which is shown to have concentrations ranging up to 0.5 ppm by volume which is up to 20 times the normal concentration at sea level; in fact, the level of ozone in the atmosphere has been widely used as an objective measure of "smogginess” in Los Angeles (Littman and Magill, 1953, 33).


Factors that Contribute to Air Pollution

There are a number of factors which contribute to the worsening of the air quality in the entirety of the United States. The continuous occurrence of air pollution cannot be attributed to man-made or anthropogenic emissions alone; geogenic emissions, those which are emitted by the non-living world, and biogenic emissions, those which are produced by the living aspects of the world such as plants, must also be considered (Daly and Zannetti, 2007, 3). As an overview, most of the man-made sources of air pollution include transportation sources, stationary sources such as factories, fumes from hair sprays and other solvents, waste deposition in landfills, and military resources such as nuclear weapons (Department of Environmental Affairs Republic of South Africa, 2016). On the other hand, geogenic emissions include volcanic emissions, natural fires, sea-salt emissions, and even from the radioactive decay that occurs within the Earth’s crust (Daly and Zannetti, 2007, 3). Finally, biogenic emissions include methane emissions from swamps and volatile organic compound emissions from forests among others (Daly and Zannetti, 2007, 3).

Undoubtedly, the most prevalent source of air pollution especially in most urban areas such as that in California is the emission from transportation vehicles. In most developed urban cities such as Los Angeles, the need for personal vehicles becomes more important since they make the lives of the people easier. Moreover, the rise of businesses which rely on the use of

vehicles such as Uber also attributes to the increased percentage of people who buy their own cars. As expected, this rise in the number of vehicles can be positively correlated to the increase in fuel consumption which in turn, is one important source of gaseous contaminants such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen (Department of Environmental Affairs, 2016, 183). In fact, there has been a statistical data which attributes the significant increase in the concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides within the atmosphere to vehicle emissions alone (Department of Environmental Affairs, 2016, 183). Another listed source of air pollution from the same source is electricity generation and consumption; in instances wherein power stations are ran by coal, this results to the emissions of pollutants such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury. Domestic fuel burning is another listed source of air pollutants however; such practice can only be observed in low-income households which mainly depend on coal, and paraffin and wood for domestic activities such as cooking and heating (Department of Environmental Affairs, 2016, 184). Aside from vehicle emissions, another prevalent source of air pollutants is urban cities such as Los Angeles is industrial emissions. Several industrial factories make use of significant amounts of coal for electricity and as a result, these also emit particulate matters and gaseous contaminants in the air. Moreover, such factories also contribute to land and water pollution which in turn, can further contribute to the worsening quality of air in such cities. Biomass burning, which can be induced by either man or the natural environment itself, can also significantly contribute to air pollution. Some of the resulting pollutants from such events include greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic contaminants (Department of Environmental Affairs, 2016, 185). The resulting emissions of nitric oxide and volatile organic contaminants can further lead to the formation of ozone and other photochemical oxidants (Department of Environmental Affairs, 2016, 185).

Perhaps another relatable air pollution source for cities in the state of California is airport emissions; aircrafts, which often travel for great distances, generate emissions which include carbon dioxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and VOCs which are all harmful for both humans and the environment (Department of Environmental Affairs, 2016, 186).

Aside from determining the sources of air pollutants, contaminants can also be classified as either of the primary or secondary type. Primary pollutants are characterized as those which are directly emitted into the atmosphere from the source (Daly and Zannetti, 2007, 3). Examples of this include carbon compounds such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, nitrogen compounds such as nitrogen oxides, dinitrogen oxide, and ammonia, sulfur compounds such as sulfur dioxide, halogen compounds such as chlorides and bromides, and particulate matter (Daly and Zannetti, 2007, 4). Moreover, particulate matter is further grouped into different categories based on the aerodynamic diameter of the particles; inhalable particles have diameters of less than 100 microns and are collectively called as such because they can easily enter the nose and mouth. PM10 is used to denote particles with diameters less than 10 microns; they are also called as "thoracic” since they have been reported to penetrate deep in the respiratory system (Daly and Zannetti, 2007, 4). "Respirable” particles, those which have diameters less than 4 microns, are small enough to completely pass through the respiratory system. PM2.5 particles, on the other hand, have diameters less than 2.5 microns and are denoted as "fine”. Finally, "ultrafine” particles are those which have diameters of less than 0.1 microns (Daly and Zannetti, 2007, 4).

On the other hand, secondary pollutants are denoted as such because they are formed in the atmosphere from primary pollutants. The most commonly known secondary pollutants

include nitrogen dioxide and HNO3 formed from NO, ozone (O3) formed from the photochemical reactions of nitrogen oxides and VOCs, sulfuric acid droplets that are formed from SO2, nitric acid droplets from NO2, sulfates and nitrates aerosols which are formed from reactions of sulfuric acid droplets and nitric acid droplets with NH3, respectively, and other organic aerosols which are formed from VOCs in gas-to-particle reactions (Daly and Zannetti, 2007, 5).

The California Air Resources Board lists the most common air pollutants in the state on their website which are as follows; ozone, PM2.5, PM10, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, lead, hydrogen sulfide, sulfate, vinyl chloride, visibility reducing particles, and toxic air contaminants such as benzene, asbestos, formaldehyde, and even inorganic lead among others (2017).


Effects of Air Pollutants to Humans, Animals, and the Environment

Essentially, the worsening quality of air as brought about by the increasing amount of pollutants in the atmosphere generally affects humans, animals, and the environment as a whole. To humans, as can be expected, the effects of air pollution are manifested in the development of health problems. Ozone, listed as the most common gaseous pollutant in California, is formed in the lower part of the atmosphere as a result of the reactions which involve volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides in the "presence of sunlight” (Hitchcock et al., 2014, 45). Generally, ozone is a respiratory irritant therefore; its presence would results to respiratory symptoms. Irritations in the respiratory system are manifested through coughing, throat soreness, airway irritation, chest tightness, and chest pain when breathing. Moreover, ozone can also contribute to the reduction of lung function which can result to difficulty in breathing (US EPA, 2014, 5). In more serious cases, the presence of ozone in the respiratory

system can also result in the inflammation and damage of the cells that line the lungs. Granted that the damaged cells are replaced; the repeated inflammation of the lung tissue can eventually result to permanent scarring and reduction in the function of the organs (US EPA, 2014, 6). Additionally, the presence of ozone can also make the lungs more susceptible to infection by "lowering the lung’s defenses by damaging the cells and reducing the number and efficacy of white blood cells in the lungs” (US EPA, 2014, 6). Ozone can also aggravate asthma by contributing as allergens to the lungs. Aside from it, it can also aggravate other chronic lung diseases such as emphysema and bronchitis (US EPA, 2014, 6). Aside from lung diseases, ozone exposure can also contribute to the enhancement of cardiovascular diseases "through its pro-inflammatory effects on the lung” in most people (Hitchcock et al., 2014, 45). Aside from its effects on humans, the presence of ozone can also induce damage on crops and forest (California Air Resources Board, 2017). Moreover, it can also damage a number of materials including rubber, plastics, paint, and even metals.

Another type of air pollutant is of the fine particulate matter specifically PM10 and PM2.5. Fine particulate matter has diameters of less than 2.5 microns thus, rendering them invisible to the naked eye. Most common sources of such include motor vehicles, power plants, forest fires, agricultural burning, and other processes which make use of combustion (US EPA, 2014, 8). On the other hand, particles which have diameters of less than 10 microns are referred to as "coarse” and common sources include dust that has been stirred up by vehicles and grinding operations (US EPA, 2014, 8). Again, the main health effects of the presence of such air pollutants are of the respiratory and cardiovascular symptoms. Short term exposure to such pollutants can result to the aggravation of asthma symptoms and the exacerbation of pre-existing lung and heart conditions in both children and adults. Moreover, long-term exposure to particulate matter can also result to increased levels of deadly cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, such as lung cancer (Hitchcock et al., 2014, 43). The resulting respiratory diseases can also be attributed to the capacity of fine particulate matter to accumulate in the pulmonary alveoli which in turn, can cause inflammation (Greenpeace, 2015, 27). Additionally, long-term exposure also increases the occurrences of death in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (Hitchcock et al., 2014, 43). This can also be attributed to the ability of particulate matter to penetrate further into the blood stream (Greenpeace, 2015, 27). There have also been several studies which show the resulting effects of PM2.5 specifically in the development of chronic diseases such as diabetes and in the neurodevelopment and cognitive function of the exposed individuals (Hitchcock et al., 2014, 44).

Another important air pollutant is nitrogen oxides which have been linked to the development of respiratory symptoms such as bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial reactivity, airway inflammation, and a decrease in the immune defense (Hitchcock et al., 2014, 47).

Carbon monoxide is a colorless gas which is one of the products of incomplete combustion of carbon. Such gas is usually emitted from vehicle exhausts which can be observed in most urban cities. Additionally, this can also result from industrial processes and natural sources such as wildfires. Its most important health effect is the reduction of the amount of oxygen in the body as it can bind to the hemoglobin found in red blood cells. People with pre-existing cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease may experience chest pains when exposed to carbon monoxide (US EPA, 2014, 10). On the other hand, people with "compromised cardiovascular and respiratory systems” may also be at greater risk of carbon monoxide

poisoning (US EPA, 2014, 10). In individuals without compromised systems, exposure to carbon monoxide can induce dizziness and reduced mental alertness.

When sulfur-containing fuels such as coal and oil are burned, one by-product of the reaction is sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas that has irritant properties; among those who are generally affected are individuals with asthma. Asthmatic individuals may experience narrowing of the airways when exposed to sulfur dioxide. Exposure to rather high levels of sulfur dioxide may result to wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath (US EPA, 2014, 11).

Among the listed air pollutants in the California Air Resources Board is lead which has been shown to result in the impaired mental functioning of children and even damages in the brain and kidneys (2017). Visibility reducing particles can result to the reduction of airport safety as it induces less clarity, color, and visual range (California Air Resources Board, 2017). There has also been a specific study which shows the resulting intestinal diseases from the effects of particulate matter. Among the plausible mechanisms include the "direct effects on epithelial cells, systemic inflammation and immune activation, and modulation of the intestinal micro biota” (Beamish et al., 2010, 279). Indeed, this only shows that the effects of air pollutants cannot be attributed to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases alone; their presence can induce abnormalities in the overall body.

Aside from its effects to the health of humans, air pollutants can also gravely cause a number of environmental effects. One significant effect is the occurrence of acid rain which is generally characterized as precipitation that contains harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids (Department of Environmental Protection). Acid rain, in turn, can damage trees and make the soil and bodies of water more acidic thereby, making it unsuitable for fishes and other wildlife

(Department of Environmental Protection). The increased amount of nitrogen oxides in bodies of water can also induce the occurrence of eutrophication which is the stimulated growth of algae. This occurrence can result to fish kills and loss of plants; this is a rather natural process however, the increased amount of nitrogen oxides caused by air emissions from vehicles and industrial sources further encourage this process (Department of Environmental Protection). The formation of haze mostly from particulate matter has also been proven to be a negative effect of air pollution as it can reduce visibility most especially in aircraft travels (Department of Environmental Protection). Finally, one important environmental effect of air pollution is the depletion of the ozone layer. The ozone layer in the stratosphere basically functions as the Earth’s protection against the harmful UV rays of the sun. However, it has been repeatedly depleted by the action of man-made chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons, hydro chlorofluorocarbons, and halons which are used in coolants, pesticides, and solvents (Department of Environmental Protection).


Environmental Injustices

Whether it is of knowledge or not, there are still a number of instances when injustices in the light of environmental issues are prevalent. In this part of the paper, a number of instances which demonstrate environmental injustices that occurred in the state of California will be mentioned and discussed to show how additional factors contribute to the increased manifestation of air pollution.

The first case is of the problem of the proximity of schools to vehicular traffic in Culver City. One school in one of the suburbs of Los Angeles, the El Marino Language School stands beside the ten-lane Interstate 405 (Hopkins, 2017). As expected, the students of this school are exposed to air pollutants that are commonly emitted from automobile emissions. This often

results to health concerns such as cardiovascular disease, impaired lung function, and even the incomplete development of children’s respiratory systems (American Lung Association). This problem is commonly observed in public schools in the state as officials don’t have enough monetary resources to supervise the building of schools in safer environments; this commonly affects those children who are part of low-income families as their parents don’t have the capacity to send them to privately owned schools.

Another case shows the concentration of fracking sites in Californian communities wherein a great number of residents are of color such as in Kern Country. First off, oil fracking is characterized as the process in which fluid is injected into the ground with high pressure to be able to extract oil (Gandossi and Von Estorff, 2015, 7). This process results to land, water, and air pollution; the last one is manifested in the leakage of contaminants such as methane, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfides which are all shown to cause detrimental effects which ranges from cancer, organ failure to even death (Funes, 2016). Now, it has been observed that there are about 45 fracking sites located within Kern Country; this unhealthful condition has been manifested in the rather high number of children who have been afflicted with asthma and epileptic symptoms (Funes, 2016). Interestingly, the communities in Kern Country are predominantly Latin in racial composition.

Finally, one more recent environmental case involves the city of Oakland when in 2016; its government publicly announced its construction plans to allow the building of the Oakland Bulk Oversized Terminal with the proposed partnership with Utah’s coal-mining counties (Yardley, 2015). This would allow Utah to ship about 9 million tons of coal through Oakland annually which would only result to increased exposure to air-borne coal dust that can induce the occurrences of bronchitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and emphysema among others (Yardley,

2015). Interestingly, the people residing in Oakland are predominantly of African-American racial composition; allowing the continuation of the project would just put people of color in greater risks of contracting diseases from air pollution.


Possible Solutions and Policy Recommendations

The obligation to continuously develop possible solutions and policy recommendations to solve the worsening air quality now lies to the community.

One of the most obvious possible solutions that the state can encourage is the slowly shift the way people move around; instead of using automobiles, people can start using bicycles. Cycling has two important pros as it lowers vehicle emissions and at the same time, promotes health by increasing physical activity (Slovic et al., 2015, 87). However, certain steps must also be taken to completely encourage people to use bicycles such as improving road conditions. Lanes exclusively for bicycles can be added to also ensure safety for the people. A concrete example would be that of Auckland, New Zealand wherein the improvement of road conditions correlated to positive results in encouraging more active transportation mobility (Slovic et al., 2015, 86).

However, when a more efficient mode of transportation is needed, one way that vehicle emission can be reduced is by ensuring that effective transportation modes such as trains are more efficient than using a personal car. When more people decide to take the bus and forget bringing their cars to work, vehicle emissions can be lowered.

To further improve the air quality of the state, solutions which aid in lowering emissions must be encouraged. Such solutions include technology and fuel improvement, restriction policies, and limitations on allowable travel distances. Technological advancements can be used to determine "ecological alternatives” to the traditional fuel that vehicles use; such alternatives

include CNG, liquefied petroleum gas, or a hybrid which have their own disadvantages but indeed, have the ability to lower harmful emissions (Slovic et al., 2015, 88).

Restriction policies such as emission standards and mandatory vehicle inspections are also appropriate ways to properly evaluate and measure the impacts of current standards and thus, be able to think of better solutions. For instance, it has been determined that in Beijing, the current emission standards had little effect on the reduction of nitrogen oxides which calls for better technologies and programs to reduce the concentration of pollutants caused by transportation vehicles (Slovic et al., 2015, 89).

If enough studies are performed and there is monetary resource, the electrification both public and private vehicles can also be another probable solution. For instance, buses in London have already been put under a Selective Catalytic Reduction retrofit to "reduce nitrogen oxides emission up to 90%” (Gregory et al., 2016, 4). On the other hand, the electrification of private vehicles can also be another viable solution as it has been shown to have the ability to lower nitrogen oxides, PM, and even greenhouse gases emissions (Gregory et al., 2016, 4).

To further aid in the removal of air pollutants in urban areas, vertical greening or vegetation can be a viable solution. There have been several studies which show that the deposition of urban trees has been enough to remove about 305,000 tons of ozone and 97,800 tons of NO2 while also reducing concentrations of CO, SO2, and particulate matter in the air (Gregory et al., 2016, 4). The planting of trees can also be effective in forming a barrier between "a high source of pollution and a vulnerable group” such as a busy highway and an elementary school (Gregory et al., 2016, 4). Finally, vegetation in urban cities can also act as efficient urban pollutant filters which can greatly improve the air quality of denser areas.

Aside from possible solution, policies can also be implemented to further reiterate the need to improve the air quality of the city. One possible policy is focused on incentivizing cycling by; "integration of cycling into the national school curriculum with a focus on traffic laws and cycling safety, reduction of speed limits to 20mph on busy urban roads where cycle lanes merge, and the mandatory installation of side guards and extended mirrors on all heavy goods vehicles” (Gregory et al., 2016, 5). On the other hand, several policies which focus on the reduction of emissions from transport can also be encouraged such as the; "retrofitting of public buses to electrical or diesel-electric hybrids, setting up tax reductions for retrofitting private vehicles to hybrid or electric, and integration of electric vehicle recharging standards into development planning” (Gregory et al., 2016, 5). Finally, the encouraging of construction of green walls through subsidies and tax breaks can be another possible recommendation to reduce urban air pollution through urban greening (Gregory et al., 2016, 5).

Indeed, the effects of air pollution have been greatly manifested since the earlier years. California is one of the most polluted states in the United States in terms of air pollution as can be manifested in the increased development of smog in most cities. The increasing percentages of people who manifest health-related problems also increase in several cities of the state which only suggest one thing; that the prevailing poor air quality must be immediately solved to reduce such instances.

The most commonly recorded air pollutants in the Californian state include ozone, PM2.5, PM10, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, lead, hydrogen sulfide, sulfate, vinyl chloride, visibility reducing particles, and toxic air contaminants which are manifested in humans through the onset of health problems such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The presence of these pollutants can also induce negative effects to the environment through the development of acid rain, eutrophication and ozone depletion.

Finally, the community is now left with the obligation to make use of possible solutions and recommend policies to ensure the continuous reductions of air pollutants through lowering emissions and implementation of policies to reiterate these. Emission lowering can be encouraged by the improvement of road conditions, electrification of both private and public vehicles and urban greening.




Works Cited

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Daly, A., & Zannetti, P. (2007). An Introduction to Air Pollution- Definitions, Classifications, and History. The Arab School for Science and Technology; The EnviroComp Institute.

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Hitchcock, G., Conlan, B., Kay, D., Brannigan, C., & Newman, D. (2014). Air Quality and Road Transport: Impacts and solutions. RAC Foundation, 87-139.

Hopkins, J. S. (2017, February 17). The invisible hazard afflicting thousands of schools. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from The Center for Public Integrity:

Littman, F. E., & Magill, P. (1953). Some Unique Aspects of Air Pollution in Los Angeles. Air Repair, 29-34.

Slovic, A. D., de Oliveira, M. A., Biehl, J., & Ribeiro, H. (2015). How Can Urban Policies Improve Air Quality and Help Mitigate Global Climate Change: a Systematic Mapping Review. Journal of Urban Health, 73-95.

US EPA. (2014, February). Air Quality Index: A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from

Yardley, W. (2015, December 11). How Utah quietly made plans to ship coal through California. Retrieved November 10, 2017, from LA Times:




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